Hong, M. & Chen, E. Y.-X. In both cases, the nonamers were solvated in a 3:1 butanol/water mixture to mimic the most challenging esterification conditions. Commercial polyacrylate-based PSAs are often accessed via petroleum-sourced monomers (Fig. J. Polym. A. Chem. To estimate total deaths in the presence of COVID-19, we used different methodological approaches. The resulting polymers were isolated in ~97% yield (over the two steps). Teikti paraik ia. 48, 21812190 (2015). J. Phys. Labels above bars indicate the states with extreme (high and low) life expectancies in 2019 and 2020. Proven ability to identify and interpret a. M.C.C. To the extent that correction factors are approximately equal for 2019 and 2020, our estimates are not seriously affected by missing deaths. J. & Bowe, B. High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19. T.A. Res. The authors thank Procter and Gamble (P&G) for supporting this work, as well as Ryan Hayes and Jonah Vilseck for assisting with simulations, Edwin Zishiri for assisting with synthesis, Gary Gilbertson, Bill Begley, and Yiping Sun for performing SEC on the PSAs, and Prof. Brian Love for his intellectual contributions. of 2-ethylhexanol and H2SO4 as a catalyst (Fig. On the final day of the Team Girls Cup, I went for a morning trip to Surfers Paradise for a swim and quality time with the family. Abbasi, J. Because these data are not available by age and sex, we used de-identified publicly available data on severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Sistema de Informao de Vigilncia Epidemiolgica da Gripe, or SIVEP-Gripe, in Portuguese). Spatiotemporal pattern of COVID-19 spread in Brazil. Among the states, Amazonas, Rondnia, Roraima and Mato Grosso had the largest declines in e0 in both 2020 and 2021 (Fig. ANDS is a $120M federally funded national infrastructure innovation project to exploit Australia's research data advantage. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles & Urey, H. C. The mechanisms of acid catalyzed ester hydrolysis, esterification and oxygen exchange of carboxylic acids. From an energetic standpoint, the CED is reduced by 18.8% and 18.6% with the sonication scenarios, and further reduced (by 24.8%) in the scenario without sonication. J. Adhes. Accept all achievement motivation scale manual Manage preferences. Natl Acad. & Brooks, C. L. Adaptive landscape flattening accelerates sampling of alchemical space in multisite dynamics. Slider with three articles shown per slide. Italian Institute for Environmental Different PSAs were targeted simply by varying the sonication times. Applicants wishing to apply for more than one topic, must submit a separate proposal under each topic. Bauer, W., Jr. Acrylic acid and derivatives. To avoid inconsistencies between life tables estimated for 2019 and 2020, we applied the same methodology to 2019. As of 25 May 2021, 20 of the 27 capital cities have intensive care unit occupancy above 80% (half of those above 90%)20. Lancet 396, 365366 (2020). ACS Sustain. Nat Commun 12, 4524 (2021). Aburto, J. M. et al. 364, 19851998 (2009). Eng. :X"."o:XKw$0/vvDvXK Pract. 61, 25842587 (1939). Researchers investigate what COVID-19 does to the heart. For example, upon heating, polyacrylic acid is known to undergo dehydration and decarboxylation in bulk17 and solution18, respectively. Unfortunately, most used diapers sit in landfills without substantial biodegradation, or are incinerated. Faria, N. R. et al. Boletim Extraordinrio do Observatrio Covid-19 Fiocruz. Pereira, A. K., Oliveira, M. S. & Sampaio, T. S. Heterogeneidades das polticas estaduais de distanciamento social diante da COVID-19: aspectos polticos e tcnico-administrativos. Woolf, S. H., Chapman, D. A., Sabo, R. T., Weinberger, D. M. & Hill, L. Excess deaths from COVID-19 and other causes, MarchApril 2020. We also used these period life tables to calculate the femalemale gap in e0 and e65 (Supplementary Table 7); the difference between the highest and lowest state life expectancies; the loss due to COVID-19 relative to increases in e0 and e65 (by sex and state) over the past two decades (20002020) (Supplementary Tables 8 and 9); and the setback in life expectancy due to COVID-19 identified by the years when the life expectancies estimated for 2020 and 2021 were last observed (Supplementary Table 10). <>/Metadata 190 0 R/ViewerPreferences 191 0 R>> T.A., S.G. and S.K. Usually, the mid-year population is a good approximation of person-years lived during the year. Responsible for the full life-cycle of the first infotainment system in the market, AutoPC built with Microsoft. In Amap, the femalemale gap is estimated to increase by 2.1 years, the highest among the states (Fig. Lancet 394, 345356 (2019). Vilseck, J. Caruso, M. M. et al. Plots of weight-average molar mass (Mw) versus time and maximum specific energy (wmax) for sonicating PAAP&G at a 2.5% w/v and b 5.0% w/v. NTO s.15: Managers have full power to dispose of or deal with the land as . Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, P. Takunda Chazovachii,Michael T. Robo,E. Neil G. Marsh,Paul M. Zimmerman&Anne J. McNeil, School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, Materials Science InnovationCorporate R&D, The Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH, USA, Macromolecular Science and Engineering Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, You can also search for this author in We also estimated changes in e65 (Fig. Holmes, L. et al. and JavaScript. 239, 255261 (2019). sub-programme "Climate change mitigation and adaptation to change. stream Teikti paraik ia. Characterisation of the first 250,000 hospital admissions for COVID-19 in Brazil: a retrospective analysis of nationwide data. x\[s8~w! State acronyms by region: North: AC=Acre, AP=Amap, AM=Amazonas, PA=Par, RO=Rondnia, RR=Roraima and TO=Tocantins; Northeast: AL=Alagoas, BA=Bahia, CE=Cear, MA=Maranho, PB=Paraba, PE=Pernambuco, PI=Piau, RN=Rio Grande do Norte and SE=Sergipe; Center-West: DF=Distrito Federal, GO=Gois, MT=Mato Grosso and MS=Mato Grosso do Sul; Southeast: ES=Esprito Santo, MG=Minas Gerais, RJ=Rio de Janeiro and SP=So Paulo; South: PR=Paran, RS=Rio Grande do Sul and SC=Santa Catarina. Life Cycle Assess. Correspondence to the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in We calculate three sets of estimates of life expectancy decline but argue that those based on the difference in life expectancy between 2019 and 2020, which include all reported deaths in those 2 years, are the most defensible because they do not depend on accurate classification of cause of death, determination of whether the death was directly or indirectly due to COVID-19 or assumptions about independence among causes. % !J8Di,t1@'l:fBHM?bG)z6PRIq\QiA#J%B,yd6:$U drJH!e+Lal#fl&|5v{@V:"`as[#!S/`GoQd&~^lsv)rp. Here, chemical transformations are used to convert waste polymers into other value-added materials, delaying their entry into the waste stream. In contrast, few studies have examined recycling of the sodium polyacrylate superabsorbent polymers. Percentage loss due to COVID-19 mortality relative to increases in female and male e0 (a) and e65 (b) between 2000 and 2020 by state. To compute the total persons-years lived for 2020, we added the monthly contributions. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles - Experienced in end-to-end order management process using SAP <br>- More than fourteen (14) years of experience on data analysis, which provides strategic and tactical support to Real Estate documents from various counties in the United States<br>- Self-motivated, results-oriented, and able to work with minimal supervision<br>- Possess proven problem solving abilities and very strong . This was the case for 12 of the 27 states (Fig. Wernet, G. et al. Frequently Asked Questions Zekry, M., Nassar, I., Salim, H. & Abdallah, A. In this work, we report a mild and efficient synthetic route for open-loop recycling the acrylic-based superabsorbent material used in diapers. We approximated the population at risk in 2021 by interpolating IBGE population projections to the mid-analysis period (1 March 2021). Managed the strategic partnerships with: Microsoft, Nokia, and NavTech. The transformation relies on an (i) acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, (ii) optional chain-shortening via sonication, and (iii) a highly efficient esterification driven by hydrophobicity. 4 0 obj The global annual production of this class of materials is estimated to be over 2 million metric tons, with disposable diapers claiming 74% of the market13. Reaction conditions and yields for acid-catalyzed esterification of poly(acrylic acid), acetic acid, and undecanoic acid. Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. conceived the research. After more than 195,000 lives were reported to have been lost in 2020 to COVID-19, no policy changes have appeared in 2021. 1b and Supplementary Table 2)5. In contrast, a common approach used in industry to convert acrylic acid into acrylate esters uses inexpensive alcohols as both the reagent and solvent39,40. One salient example is the superabsorbent material used in diapers and feminine hygiene products, which contain crosslinked sodium polyacrylates. Innovation Place, CONNECTING (In contrast to this assumption, the potential dependence between COVID-19 and other causes might lead to modified probabilities of dying from other causes if COVID-19 were eliminated or added as a cause of death.) Sci. Revista de Administrao Pblica 54, 678696 (2020). Anne J. McNeil. For both DT20 and DT19, after estimating the ratio of non-COVID-19 deaths to all-cause deaths, we then used this ratio to estimate the counterfactual life tables in which COVID-19 was eliminated and COVID-19 was included, respectively. J. The rate of chain scission during sonication is directly proportional to the amount of chain entanglement during sonication35. <>/XObject<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 960 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Because this recycling method should be amenable to waste polymer as the feedstock, it offers a more sustainable alternative to diaper disposal in a landfill or incineration. Proposals under this topic must address EU Nature and Biodiversity legislation compliance assurance and access to justice by:- establishing new or, where in place, enhancing existing cross-border, national or regional networks of compliance assurance practitioners or experts; and/or establishing or, where in place, improving professional Degrad. 4b,c). Manaus, the capital of Amazonas, observed a very high attack rate after the first wave of the pandemic in 2020 (ref. Therefore, efforts to introduce synergy between superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid) recovery and PSA production may provide much-needed demand for diaper recycling end-products, which in-turn may improve environmental performance for both processes on a large scale. 4). sub-programme "Nature and Biodiversity". Excitingly, a viable central region pressure-sensitive adhesive is accessible without any sonication. Soil Environ. Rev. In just the first 4 months of 2021, Brazil surpassed the number of COVID-19 deaths during all of 2020. To interrogate this hypothesis, we measured the percent esterification under different conditions. These are some examples of deteriorating health conditions that not only will generate a higher demand for healthcare services but also might affect future mortality patterns. & Shamanin, V. V. Chain degradation under low-intensity sonication of polymer solutions in the presence of filler: Mechanism of ultrasonic degradation of flexible chain macromolecules. T32 AG000037). Codice fiscale e Partita Iva 10125211002 . CAS To obtain The data required to reproduce the results presented in this paper are available at https://github.com/mcastrolab/Brazil-Covid19-e0-change/tree/main/data. D.I.C., M.I.J., and E.N.G.M. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal decomposition of super absorbent polymers. Projects focussing exclusively on governance are excluded from this Call topic and covered by the related Call topic LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-GOV. Syntheses of pressure-sensitive adhesives from petroleum feedstocks (industrial approach) compared to waste diaper-based feedstock (open-loop recycling). Ventura, D. F. L., Giulio, G. M. & Rached, D. H. Lessons from the Covid-19 pandemic: sustainability is an indispensable condition of global health security. 99, 99106 (2015). performed the life cycle assessments mentored by J.A. In Latin America, at least four countries experienced secular mortality declines at earlier dates: Argentina, Uruguay, Costa Rica and Cuba9. 9w%?>Jb(o.IACt"`. Previous studies used this approach to estimate life tables in the presence of COVID-19 (refs. Anjeza Beharaj, Ethan Z. McCaslin, Mark W. Grinstaff, Aya Samir, Fatma H. Ashour, Mohamed Bassyouni, Amar K. Mohanty, Feng Wu, Manjusri Misra, Hom N. Sharma, Jeremy M. Lenhardt, Long N. Dinh, Ephraim G. Morado, Mara L. Paterson, Steven C. Zimmerman, Anna M. Duraj-Thatte, Avinash Manjula-Basavanna, Neel S. Joshi, Ainara Sangroniz, Jian-Bo Zhu, Haritz Sardon, Nature Communications We showed that a largely unmitigated pandemic, in a context of local inequalities, resulted in a high and unequal mortality burden. LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-GOV - Nature Governance - Standard Action Projects (SAP) I progetti relativi a questa call devono essere orientati verso la garanzia di conformit alla legislazione dell'UE in materia di natura e biodiversit e l'accesso alla giustizia mediante: Opening date: 13 July 2021 Deadline: 30 November 2021 Code: LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-GOV Programme: LIFE - Programme for the Environment and Climate Action Go to the call Objective To contribute to the protection of nature and biodiversity by: Supporting nature and biodiversity policy and legislation compliance assurance, and/or et al. Child immunization was reduced, particularly among impoverished children in the North region29. Ching, T. W. et al. Lancet Respir. Third, for both 2020 and 2021, we calculated life tables based on the addition of COVID-19 mortality to the mortality pattern of 2019 (DT19). endobj Health 7, e1575e1583 (2019). Z. Acrylic acid and derivatives. This was the case with the 1918 influenza pandemic in the United States, when e0 in 1919 was higher than in 1917, likely due, in part, to selective mortality of individuals with tuberculosis19. The superabsorbent polymer provided by P&G is a sodium poly(acrylate) crosslinked via ~0.05mol% poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate co-monomer (PAAP&G)30. Reduction in life expectancy in Brazil after COVID-19. Proc. Article 19, 36923706 (2017). 3 0 obj Castro, M. C. et al. It is also the case that the difference in life expectancy between 2019 and 2020 could encompass secular changes unrelated to the pandemic. Here we report an open-loop recycling method for these materials that involves (i) decrosslinking via hydrolysis, (ii) an optional chain-shortening via sonication, and (iii) functionalizing via Fischer esterification. Blackwhite risk differentials in COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) transmission, mortality and case fatality in the United States: translational epidemiologic perspective and challenges. stream The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis outperformed the base-mediated hydrolysis by a factor of 10 on both global warming potential and cumulative energy demand. First, differences in these period life expectancies capture both direct and indirect mortality effects of COVID-19 in 2020. 28, 434439 (2003). Esterification of polyacrylic acid using alkyl halides under basic conditions had already been reported38. Death rates from non-COVID-19 causes in 2020 likely changed between 2019 and 2020, decreasing for some causes (for example, from reduced exposure to other infections) and increasing in others (for example, from delayed or foregone healthcare or overburdening of the healthcare system). U.S. Patent Application 2021/0054248 A1 (Februrary 25, 2021). JAMA 325, 808811 (2021). As of 29 May 2021, the number of COVID-19 deaths in Brazil was 137% of those reported in 2020; in Amazonas, for every COVID-19 death in 2020, there have been 1.5 deaths in 2021. Error bars are derived from an average of two experiments. US Provisional Patent Application No. 24, 561564 (2021). Brazil does not lack a universal healthcare system, a network of community health agents to target vulnerable communities, sufficient data and a capable cadre of researchers tirelessly advancing knowledge and informing policy. The LIFE programme is structured in two fields - Environment and Climate Action - and it contributes to these priorities through its four sub-programmes: Environment field: 1. On. Rede PENSSAN. Oncol. and C.M.T. Semin. Estimated change in e0 (c) and e65 (d) in 2021. M.C.C., N.G., T.A. Mater. et al. LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-GOV Nature b, Estimated change in e65 in 2020 based on the difference from life tables calculated for 2019 and 2020 by state and sex. Process for Producing Acrylic Acid. Nature Governance ID LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-GOV Types of action LIFE Project Grants Deadline model single-stage Opening date 13 July 2021 Deadline date 30 November 2021 17:00:00 Brussels time Projetos SNAP (os chamados projetos integrados no anterior Regulamento, mas agora especficos Chem. On average, larger declines in e0 and e65 were estimated in the North regions and smaller in the South regions (Fig. Given a growing emphasis on sustainability within the polymer industry, including calls to increase the circularity of polymer production12, this LCA provides an important metric for evaluating approaches to polymer recycling. Prod. Advancing sustainable materials management: 2017 fact sheet. Proc. Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil. Excess mortality in Brazil: a detailed description of trends in mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prod. Chazovachii, P. T., Somers, M., Alfaro, J., McNeil, A. J. in Brasil: uma viso geogrfica e ambiental no incio do sculo XXI. 8,17). The resulting acidic polymer solutions were used directly in the subsequent experiments without any isolation steps. "Climate action". M.C.C. USA 118, e2019536118 (2021). Programme: Programme for Environment and Climate Action (LIFE) . and T.A. Clin. We calculated the probability of surviving from age x to age x + n (npx), the probability of dying between age x and x + n (nqx) and the average person-years lived in the interval by those dying in the interval (nax): where * indicates that the measure is from the life table that does not contain COVID-19 as a cause of death. It was here that Sam, my husband, turned to me and said, 'This could . The new plastics economy: rethinking the future of plastics & catalyzing action. In Amazonas, male e65 was estimated to decline by 20% from 2019 to 2020. Considering the large COVID-19 death toll in Brazil, with marked regional inequalities, our goal was to quantify the loss in e0 and e65 in 2020 and in the first 4 months of 2021 due to the pandemic. The evergreen broadleaved shrubs were shorter in height (3.06 0.99 m) than palm-leaved life forms (19.29 5.39 m). We estimated a reduction of 1.31 years in e0 from 2019 to 2020 (Fig. One of the pitfalls of diaper recycling pilots is the low demand for recovered diaper materials, which depreciates the environmental potentiality of such endeavors14. Bystryak, S., Santockyte, R. & Peshkovsky, A. S. Cell disruption of S. cerevisiae by scalable high-intensity ultrasound. These results suggest that the substrate hydrophobicity also favors conversion to the ester. Second, in contrast to DT19 and DT20, the method based on the difference in life expectancy between 2019 and 2020 makes no assumption about independence of causes of death (that is, that the risks of dying from other causes are unaffected by the addition or elimination of COVID-19 mortality), an assumption that was almost certainly violated during the pandemic. Publishers note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 123, 116129 (2019). sub-programme "Transition to clean energy". Across states, the largest declines were estimated for Amazonas (3.14 years), Amap (2.46 years) and Par (2.44 years). The resulting materials exhibit low-to-medium storage and loss moduli, and as such, are applicable as general-purpose adhesives. Chiang, C. L. Introduction to Stochastic Processes in Biostatistics (Wiley, 1968). M.C.C., S.G.K. To summarize, we developed a facile and potentially scalable method to synthesize commercially relevant PSAs by open-loop recycling poly(acrylic acid) sourced from a leading diaper manufacturer. The synthetic polymer community created these impactful materials, and now, we must turn our attention towards technologies that facilitate their collection and recycling, to create a circular economy that is more sustainable7. MRS Bull. All environmental data were gathered from experiments, literature, or the ecoinvent database (version 3.5)51, and implemented in SimaPro v., as described in detail within the Supporting Information (Supplementary Information pgs S36S41). performed all wet-lab experimental work under the guidance of A.J.M. JRSvk] CAS Between 1945 and 2020, e0 in Brazil increased from 45.5 years to 76.7 years10, an average of almost 5 months per calendar year. g;"a"E^X @; 1c), broadly mirroring the patterns across states (Fig. 39, 2737 (2020). Preparation of pressure sensitive adhesives from post-consumer superabsorbent polymers. Faria, N. R. et al. ISSN 1078-8956 (print). Super absorbent polymer recycling to pressure sensitive adhesives. 4 0 obj Picture: Matt Roberts/Getty Images. Prot. Programme for Environment and Climate Action (LIFE) ID: LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-NATURE: Types of action: LIFE Project Grants: Deadline model: single-stage: Opening date: 13 July 2021: Deadline date: 30 November 2021 17:00:00 Brussels time . interpreted the data. %PDF-1.7 (UHe&+IW6rQIG nD!? M.S. <> J. Recent technologies for treatment and recycling of used disposable baby diapers. Google Scholar. SAP Certified with fifteen years of SAP development experience in UK and New Zealand. This year, there is 598 million available for nature conservation, environmental protection, climate action, and clean energy transition projects. Sci. (ed.) Among the states, the largest setback was estimated for Amazonas and Par (levels of 2006 for both sexes, 2008 and 2010 for females and 2005 and 2002 for males). & van der Schaar, M. Ethnic and regional variations in hospital mortality from COVID-19 in Brazil: a cross-sectional observational study. https://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cdha/latinmortality/wp-content/uploads/book_Ch2.pdf (2015). LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-NATURE Nature and Biodiversity LIFE-2021-SAP-NAT-GOV Nature Governance Each project application under the call must address only one of these topics. Mortality due to COVID-19 is estimated to have reduced e0 in the United States by 1.13 years, setting it back to values observed in 2003 (ref. 127, 289301 (2016). Collias, D. I. et al. March 2, 2023 - 6:00AM. A life cycle assessment demonstrates that the adhesives synthesized via this approach outcompete the same materials derived from petroleum feedstocks on nearly every metric, including carbon dioxide emissions and cumulative energy demand. Coates, G. W. & Getzler, Y. D. Y. L. Chemical recycling to monomer for an ideal, circular polymer economy. Moriguchi, T. & Arita, Y. Chem. Chubarova, E. V., Melenevskaya, E. Y. In the Northeast, however, the estimated decreases in life expectancy in 2020 are smaller than in the North. Recent efforts to sidestep this degradation using microwaves and added radical initiators led to oligomeric products with 5060% decarboxylation19. Lancet 397, 220232 (2021). Ohara, T. et al. Chazovachii, P.T., Somers, M.J., Robo, M.T. To probe whether the hydrophobic side chains also push the equilibrium towards esterification, atomistic simulations were used (Supplementary Information pgs S27S29)46,47. Both methods resulted in larger estimates of life expectancy decline compared to the difference between 2019 and 2020 period life tables (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2): for example, for Brazil (both sexes), the decline in e0 was estimated at 1.92 years (DT20) and 1.67 years (DT19) versus 1.31 years (difference between 2019 and 2020 life tables).